Antonin Dvořák in 1890 was a happy man. He was just elected to the Bohemian Academy of Science, Literature and Arts, and wrote this short symphony as a thank you note. His previous symphony had been rather dark and stormy, creating a stark contrast.
The composer conducted the premiere in Prague himself. I know Dvořák mostly for his beautiful melodies, mostly based on folk tunes. This symphony for me sounded much different. It is much more in the traditional German classical style. The wikipedia page about the work tells me it is also in large part based on folk music, but I didn’t hear it.